NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 4(4) 2022 pp.57- 71 

A Review of Hazards and Precautionary Measures in Science and Technology Laboratories

Igbashio, Mercy Doofan, Obasuyi Emmanuel Idemudia, and Ochoyama, Haruna

Abstract

While working in a science and technology laboratory, hazards are frequently encountered due to the usage of equipment, tools, and apparatus, or chemicals and reagents when conducting an experiment or research. Exposure to hazards occurs via different routes; inhalation, absorption, ingestion, and injection. This could lead to some detrimental health effects. Hazard prevention or minimization is a key factor in safety precaution. Aiming to create hazards and safety awareness, this review article provides the basic types of laboratory hazards (chemical, physical, and biological hazards) and safety measures to adopt as well as emergency response to hazards.

Keywords: Hazards, Hazardous-materials, Laboratory, Laboratory -users, Precaution, Safety.

Cite this article as: Igbashio, Mercy Doofan, Obasuyi Emmanuel Idemudia, & Ochoyama, Haruna. (2022). A Review of Hazards and Precautionary Measures in Science and Technology Laboratories. NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research, 4(4), 57–71. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7393551

  1. K. Shrivastava, Safety Procedures in Science Laboratory, International Journal of Engineering and Scientific Research. 5 (2017) 54–64.
  2. Yang, G. Reniers, G. Chen, F. Goerlandt, A bibliometric review of laborator safety in universities, Safety Sci. 120(2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.06.022                                         
  3. K.J. Ayana U.C. Walters, W. Lawrence, Chemical laboratory safety awareness, attitudes and practices of tertiary students, Saf. Sci. 96 (2017) 161–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.03.017.
  4. Wangdi, S. Tshomo, Investigating Chemical Laboratory Safety Based on Students’ Ability to Recognise the Common Laboratory Hazard Symbols, Educational Innovation and Practice EIP Spring (2016) 41–52.
  5. D. Ménard, J.F. Trant, A review and critique of academic lab safety research, Nat. Chem. 12 (2020) 17–25. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-019-0375-x.
  6. L. Marendaz, J.C. Suard, T. Meyer, A systematic tool for Assessment and Classification of Hazard in Laboratories (ACHiL). Saf. Sci. 53(2013) 168–176.
  7. Rajan, Occupational Hazards: A Comparative Study among Medical Laboratory Technicians, Siddhant- A J. Decis. Mak. 14 (2014) 189. https://doi.org/10.5958/2231-0657.2014.00522.9.
  8. World Health Organization, Women and Health Taday’s Evidence Tomorrow’s Agenda. Switzerland: WHO Press (2009).
  9. S. Marin, F.O. Muñoz-Osuna, K.L. Arvayo-Mata, C.R. Álvarez-Chávez, Chemistry laboratory safety climate survey (CLASS): A tool for measuring students’ perceptions of safety, J. Chem. Heal. Saf. 26 (2019) 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2019.01.001.
  10. Abd Elrazek Mahmoud, S. Said Sabry, Safety Training Program for Clinical Laboratory Workers Regarding Prevention of Occupational Hazards, Am. J. Nurs. Res. 7, (2019) 116–127.
  11. Chinadaily, Lab Blast Kills Three Students in Beijing University.  http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201812/26/WS5c233187a310d91214051076.html  (Accessed September 8, 2022).
  12. H, Gibson, I. Schröder, N.L. Wayne, A research university’s rapid response to a fatal  chemistry accident: Safety changes and outcomes, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety  21(4) (2014) 18– 26. doi:10.1016/j.jchas.2014.01.003.
  13. C. Wu, C.W. Liu, M.C. Lu, Safety climate in university and college laboratories: impact of organizational and individual factors, Journal of Safety Research, 38(2007) 91–102.
  14. Freemantle, Blast kills French chemistry professor. Chemical and Engineering News 84 (14) (2006) 13.
  15. American Chemical Society. Creating safety cultures in academic institutions: a report of the safety culture task force of the ACS committee on chemical safety. (2012).
  16. Pells, Bristol University evacuated after student accidentally makes explo-sive chemical used in terror attacks. Independent, (2017) February 16, 2017.
  17. Clerkin, Princeton University labora- tory accident sends three people to the hospital. Times of Trenton,(2012) May 23, 2012.
  18. Wolford, V. Yee, BC student hurt in lab accident. Boston.com, 2011 June 26, 2011.
  19. Asiry, L-C. Ang, Laboratory Safety: Chemical and Physical Hazards; In: W.H. Yong, Biobanking: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 1897 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature (2019) (Chapter 21),pp 243–252. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8935-5_21.
  20. R. Álvarez-Chávez, L.S. Marín, K. Perez-Gamez, M. Portell, L. Velazquez, F. Munoz-Osuna, Assessing College Students’ Risk Perceptions of Hazards in Chemistry Laboratories, J. Chem. Educ. 96 (2019) 2120–2131. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00891.
  21. H. Hill, Recognizing and understanding hazards — The key first step to safety, J. Chem. Heal. Saf. 26 (2019) 5–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchas.2018.11.005.
  22. Schröder, E. Czornyj, M.B. Blayney, N.L. Wayne, C.A. Merlic, Proceedings of the 2018 Laboratory Safety Workshop: Hazard and Risk Management in the Laboratory, J.Chem. Heal. Saf. 27 (2020) 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.0c00012.
  23. Committee on Professional Training – ACS (2017) ‘Committee on Professional Training Laboratory Safety’, American Chemical Society, pp. 1–3.
  24. A.C. Burnett, G. Lunn, R. Coico, Biosafety: Guidelines for working with pathogenic and infectious microorganisms, Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. (2009) 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780471729259.mc01a01s13.
  25. Fadeyi, A. Fowotade, M.O. Abiodun,  A.K. Jimoh,  C. Nwabuisi, O.O. Desalu, Awareness and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers in the laboratories of two public health facilities in Nigeria. Niger. Postgrad. Med. J. 18(2011)  141–146.
  26. Ozdemir, M. Gul, E. Celik, Assessment of occupational hazards and associated risks in fuzzy environment: A case study of a university chemical laboratory, Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 23 (2017) 895–924. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2017.1292844.
  27. J. Cho, Y.G. Ji, A Study on Application Method & System Introduction of Laboratory Pre-hazards Risk Analysis, J. Korean Soc. Saf. 31 (2016) 126–135. https://doi.org/10.14346/jkosos.2016.31.4.126.
  28. Kimber, D. A. Basketter, R. J. Dearman, Chemical allergens What are the issues?, Toxicology 268(3) (2010)., 139–142.  doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.07.015   268 (2010) 139–142 
  29. Cheesbrough, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1:(2005)pp50-99.
  30. B. F. Galante, D. M. B. Costa,  T. C. C. França,  R. S.Viaro, Risk assessment in a chemical laboratory, Occupational Safety and Hygiene (2016) IV, 105.
  31. UNL Environmental Health and Safety, Toxicology and Exposure Guidelines, (2002) .
  32. Health and safety in the science classroom : kindergarten to grade 12, Alberta Education  (2019) pp 61-120.
  33. T. Karlberg, M.A. Bergström, A. Börje, K. Luthman, J.L.G. Nilsson, Allergic contact dermatitis – Formation, structural requirements, and reactivity of skin sensitizers, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21 (2008) 53–69. https://doi.org/10.1021/tx7002239.
  34. Management, Perchloric Acid Exposure , Signs and Symptoms and Chemical Properties Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE ) & Personnel Monitoring Labeling & Storage Engineering Controls , Equipment & Materials, (2019) 1–3.
  35. V. Mcleod, P. Balston, Laboratory Hazards and Risks, An overview of the most   common hazards encountered in typical research labs (2011).
  36. Guidelines for Chemical Laboratory Safety in Academic Institutions, ACS Committee on Chemical Safety, Washington, DC, 2016. A comprehensive document providing a broad  overview of the range of safety considerations for undergraduate, graduate and continuing safety education.  
  37. U. Udo, O. E. Aru, D. O. Okey, E. O Agwu, Investigating the Health Hazards Associated with 5G Network: A Review, NIPES Journal of Science and Technology  Research 4(1) (2022) pp.66 – 77.
  38. Seyoum, Lectures Notes For Medical Laboratory Technology Student: Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology, Ethopia Public Health Training Initiatives(EPTHI) Haramaya University (2006) pp102-121.
  39. D. Bancroft Bancroft’s theory and practice of histological techniques. Safety and Ergonomics in the laboratory, 7th edn. (2013) Churchill Livingstone, London
  40. D. Backus, S. Dowdy, K. Boschert , T. Richards , M. Becker-Hapak, Safety guidance for laboratory personnel working with trans-activating transduction (TAT) protein transduction domain, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety. (2001) 8(2):5–11. 
  41. R. El-Zaemey, S. Dorji, N. Rai, B. Doj, I. Lin, Exposure to occupational hazards among health care workers in low-and middle-income countries: A scoping review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  18(5) (2021) pp 1-41 DOI 10.3390/ijerph18052603.
  42. World Health Organization, Geneva, Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 3rd edition, (2004) NHO/CDS/CSR/LYO/ 2004.11. 1
  43. A. Gallion, M.J. Samide, A.M. Wilson, Demonstrating the importance of cleanliness and safety in an undergraduate teaching laboratory, Journal of Chemical Health and Safety (2015).) S1871553215000031–.  doi:10.1016/j.jchas.2015.01.002    
  44. Princeton University Safety Environmental Health, Section 5 : Health Hazards of Chemicals, (2020) 1–8.
  45. F. Mazzuckelli, M.M. Methner, M. Eileen Birch, D.E. Evans, B.K. Ku, K. Crouch, M.D. Hoover, Identification and characterization of potential sources of worker exposure to carbon nanofibers during polymer composite laboratory operations, J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 4 (2007) D125–D130. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459620701683871.
  46. National Research Council (US) Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) 4 (2011). Evaluating Hazards and Assessing Risks in the Laboratory. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK55880/
  47. Aldandani, Safety and first aid manual in school laboratories. Riyadh: Ministry of Education. (2010).
  48. Ali, Concepts of laboratory safety for school teachers in Algeria, Jordanian Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(9) (2013), 255-261.
  49. American Chemical Society In A. A.-A. Akram (Trans.), Safety in educational Chemistry laboratories (7th ed.) (2010).Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
  50. McGovern, Patricia M. Kochevar, Laura K. Vesley, Donald Gershon, Robyn R.M. Laboratory professionals’ compliance with universal precautions, Laboratory Medicine.(1997) 28(11) PP 725-730. DOI 10.1093/labmed/28.11.725.
  51. A. Fagihi, The Level of Awareness of Safety Measures Practiced in School Laboratories among Pre-Service Science Teachers at Najran University. Journal of Educational Issues (2018) 4(1) PP107 doi 10.5296/jei.v4i1.12908
  52. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide, (2006) pp 88. NIOSH, S. Consumer Safety Product Commission Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/NIOSH2007107.pdf. pp8-11
  53. Shivaji K, An Overview: Laboratory Safety and work Practices in Infectious Disease Research, J. HIV Clin. Sci. Res. 5 (2018) 001–006. https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-3786.000026.
  54. Bane, Laboratory ergonomics: How to keep stress-related physical problems from Occurring, Adv Med Lab. 13 (2002).
  55. O. Guterl, Repetitive motion injuries, Adv Med Lab. 9(13) (1997) 6–8.
  56. S. D’Sa, S. Lakshmi, An easy Guide For Practical Biochemistry, in: Lab. Rules Regul., Fiist, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2010: pp. 1–15.
  57. G. Olannye, C. Godwin, A. Dunkwa-Okafor, A.G. Ogogure, Gram-Neagative Bacteria Associated with Laboratory Workbenches in Microbiology Department, University of Benin. NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 4(3) (2022) pp.53 – 60. https//doi.org/10.37933/nipes4.32022.6
  58. Florida State University Emergency Management: Chemical Spills. (Accessed 5th2022) https://emergency.fsu.edu/hazards/chemical-spills
  59. Juba, B.W., Mowry, C.D., Fuentes, R.S., Pimentel, A.S., Román-Kustas, J.K., Lessons Learned – Fluoride Exposure and Response, Chem. Heal. Saf. 28 (2021)129–133. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.0c00108