Onwudiwe, C.C; Atuanya, E.I ; marhiagbe, E.E


The widespread use of drilling muds has raised concern regarding their impacts on human and environmental health hence the compost biotreatment of oil and water based drilling muds used by petroleum industries in Nigeria was studied. Standard analytical and microbiological procedures were adopted in this study. The results of the compost biotreatment of the oil based mud showed that the amendment with poultry manure recorded the highest Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon degradation of 99.77% while the macrocosm with soil only recorded the lowest (57.13%). For the water based mud, the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon degradation of the entire macrocosm was uniform giving a percentage degradation of 98.31%. Treatment with oil based mud + vegetable compost + soil recorded the highest oil and grease reduction from 246.1mg/l in week 1 to 94.1mg/kg after 11 weeks. Treatment with oil based mud + NPK only recorded the lowest oil and grease reduction from 245.5mg/kg in week 1 to 143.8mg/kg in week 11. Macrocosm with water based mud + vegetable compost + soil also recorded the highest oil and grease reduction from 142.7mg/l in week 1 to 30.1mg/kg in week 11, while treatment with water based mud + soil recorded the lowest oil and grease reduction from 143.6mg/l in week 1 to 92.4mg/kg in week 11. Read full PDF

Keywords: compost, degradation, amendment, macrocosm, biotreatmen

  • [1] Imarhiagbe, E. E and Atuanya, E. I (2017): Assessment of biodegradation and toxicity of drill-muds used in an onshore active field located in Edo State, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(2)63 – 68
  • [2] Ezemonye, L. I. N., Ogeleka, D. F., and Okieimen, F. E. (2008). “Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.” Journal of Hazard Material. 157(1), 64–68.
  • [3] Harayama, S., Kasai, Y., and Shutsubo, K. (1999). “Petroleum biodegradation in marine environment.” Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 1(1): 63–70.
  • [4] Mojtahid, M. (2006). “Benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of drill cutting disposal in tropical east Atlantic outer shelf environments.” Marine Micropaleontol. 61(1–3): 58–75.
  • [5] Khangarot, B. S., and Das, S. (2009). “Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby and correlation to EC50 values of other test models.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 172(2–3): 641–649.
  • [6] Silva, A., Figueiredo, S. A., Sales, M. G., and Delerue-Matos, C. (2009). “Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris—a useful tool in hazardous effluents management.” Journal of Hazardous Material 167(1–3):179–185.
  • [7] Morvan, J., Cadre, V. L., Jorissen, F., and Debenay, J. P. (2004). “Foraminifera as potential bio-indicators of the Erika oil spill in the Bay of Bourneuf: Field and experimental studies.” Aquatic Living Resources 17(3): 317–322.
  • [8] McCay, D. F., Rowe, J. J., Whittier, N., Sankaranarayanan, S., and Etkin, D. S. (2004). “Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 107(1–2), 11–25.
  • [9] Boland, G., Current, C., Gravois, M., Metcalf, M., and Peular, E. (2004). Fate and effects of synthetic-based drilling fluid at Mississippi Canyon block, Mineral Management Services, USA, 778.
  • [10]Broni-Bediako, E. and Amorin, R. (2010). Effects of Drilling Fluid Exposure to Oil and Gas Workers Presented with Major Areas of Exposure and Exposure Indicators. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 2(8): 710-719.
  • [11]Nrior, R. R. and Odokuma L. O. (2015) Comparative toxicity of drilling fluids to marine water shrimp (Mysidoposis bahia) and brackish water shrimp (Palaemonetes africanus). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 9(7): 73-79
  • [12]Ifeadi, C.N., Nwankwo, J.N., Ekaluo A.B. and Orubima, I.I. (1985). Treatment and Disposal of drilling muds and cuttings in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment In: Proceedings of the 1985 International seminar Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Lagos 55- 58.
  • [13]Medina-Bellver, J.I., Mar´ın, P. and Delgado, A. (2005). Evidence for in-situ crude oil biodegradation after the Prestige oil spill. Environmental Microbiology. 7(6): 773–779
  • [14]April, T.M., Foght, J.M. and Currah, R.S. (2000). Hydrocarbon degrading filamentous fungi isolated from flare pit soils in northern and western Canada. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 46(1):38–49.
  • [15]Ulrici, W. (2000) Contaminant soil areas, different countries and contaminant monitoring of contaminants in Environmental Process II. Soil Decontamination Biotechnology, 11: 5–42
  • [16]Imarhiagbe, E.E., Atuanya, E.I and Ogiehor, I. S (2013). Aerobic Degradation of Drill Muds by Axenic and Mixed Bacterial Isolates from Drill Cuttings at Ologbo, Edo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology 25: 46-52
  • [17]Okerentugba, P.O and Ezeronye, O. U (2003): Petroleum degrading potentials of single and mixed microbial cultures isolated from rivers and refinery effluent in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2 (9): 288- 292.
  • [18]Atuanya, E. and Tudararo-Aherobo, L. (2014). Ecotoxicological effects of discharge of Nigerian petroleum refinery oily sludge on biological sentinels. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 9: 95 – 103
  • [19]United States Environmental Protection Agency (1998). Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5305W). An Analysis of composting as an Environmental Remediation Technology. EPA 530-R-98-008
  • [20]McCosh, K. and Getliff, J. (2002). Drilling Fluid Chemicals and Earthworm Toxicity. International Petroleum Environmental Conference. Houston. Texas, USA. November 6-9, 2001. Onwudiwe, C.C et al. / NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 2(3) 2020 pp. 1-11 11
  • [21]Atagana, H.I. (2003). Bioremediation of creosote contaminated soil: a pilot-scale land farming evaluation. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 19: 571 – 581
  • [22]Ayotomuno, J.M., Okparanma, R.N. and Araka, P.P. (2009). Bioaugumentation and composting of oil-field drill –cutting containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Journal of Food Agricultural Environment 7(2): 658 – 664
  • [23]Sharma, K. (2009). Manual of Microbiology. Ane Books. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 405 pp.
  • [24]Cullimore, D.R. (2000). Practical Atlas for Bacterial Identification. CRC Press, Florida. 209 pp.
  • [25]Potter, C.L, Glaser, J.A, Hermann, R. and Dosani, M.A (1999). Remediation of contaminated East River sediment by composting technology. In Leeson A and Alleman B C (Eds), Bioremediation technologies for polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbon compounds. The fifth international in situ and on-site bioremediation symposium. San Diego, California, April 19-22, 1999.Battelle Press, Columbus.
  • [26]Manilal, V.B. and Alexander, M. (1991) Factors affecting the microbial degradation of phenanthrene in soil. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 35:401–405
  • [27]Wang, X., Yu, X. and Bartha. R. (1990) Effect of bioremediation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in soil. Environmental Science Technology 24:1086–1089
  • [28]Wittmaier, M., Harborth, P. and Hanert, H.H. (1992) Biological activity, pollutant degradation and detoxification in soil highly contaminated with tar oil. In: Preprints of the international symposium: Soil decontamination using biological processes. Dechema, Frankfurt, 611–617p
  • [29]Heitkamp, M.A. and Cerniglia, C.E. (1989). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by a Mycobacterium sp. in microcosms containing sediment and water from a pristine ecosystem. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 55:1968–1973
  • [30]Brotkorb, T.S. and Legge, R.L. (1992) Enhanced biodegradation of phenanhtrene in oil tar-contaminated soils supplemented with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 58: 3117– 3121
  • [31]Grosser, R.J., Warshawsky, D. and Vestal, R. (1991). Indigenous and enhanced mineralization of pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbazole in soils. Applied Environmental Microbiology 57:3462–3469
  • [32] Chaudhry, G.R. (1994). Biological Degradation and Bioremediation of Toxic Chemicals. Dioscorides press, Portland Oregon 515pp
  • [33]Texas Research Institute, Inc. (1982a). Enhancing the microbial degradation of underground gasoiline by increasing available oxygen. Report to the American Petroleum Institute.