Ajibola O.O, Alamuoye O.F, Omoyeni D.O., Adebayo A.O., Borisade S.G., Olotu V., Adetoye O., Adebanji S.


The homogenizer is vital equipment in numerous production sectors such as in food processing, animal feed processing, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, waste recycling and mineral and allied industries. In this work, a multi-purpose homogenizer suitable for the mixing of different materials (animal and fish feeds, coal fuel, foundry sand etc) was designed; fabricated and the performance of the machine evaluated. The cost is about #205,000.00.

Download full PDF

Keywords: Fabrication, Multi-purpose Homogenizer, Mineral, Animal Feed Processing, Mixing Homogeneity, Liquids Influence, Foundry Sand Mixers


[1] Stark, C.R., Fahrenholz, A.C. (2015). Quality assurance programs in feed manufacturing. In Fahrenholz, A.C, 2019. Best practices: Mixing and sampling, Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. 250, pp 51–52

[2] Rocha, A.G, Montanhini, R.N, Dilkin, P, Tamiosso, C.D, Mallmann, C.A, (2015). Comparison of different indicators for the evaluation of feed mixing efficiency. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. 209,pp 249–256

[3] Jiang, S, Ye, Y, He, M, Duan, C, Liu, S, Liu, J, Xiao, X, Zhang, H, Tan, Y, (2019). Mixing uniformity of irregular sand and gravel materials in a rotating drum with determination of contact model parameters. Powder Technology Vol. 354, pp 377–391

[4] Cleary, P.W, Morrison, R.D, (2016). Comminution mechanisms, particle shape evolution and collision energy partitioning in tumbling mills, Mineral Engineering. Vol. 86, pp75–95.

[5] Sahoo B, Sahoo N, Saha U.(2009). Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dualfuel gas diesel engines: A critical review. Renewable and sustainable energy review.13, (6-7), p 1151–1184.

[6] Bauman, I, D.CuriC, and Boban M. (2008). Mixing of solids in different mixing devices. Sadhana Vol. 33, Part 6, pp. 721–731.

[7] Jimoh B.O., Ajibola O.O., Borisade S.G (2015). Suitability of selected sand mine in Akure, Nigeria for use as foundry sands in aluminium alloy casting. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. Vol. 5, No. 8, pp 485-495.

[8] Dhankhar P. (2014). Homogenization fundamentals. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), Vol. 4, Issue 5, pp 01-08.

[9] Kushnir, V, Gavrilov, N, Kim, S, (2016). Justification of the design of the two-shaft mixer of forages. Procedia Engineering. Vol. 150, pp 1168 – 1175

[10] Kozlov, A.S, Shirov, Y.P, (1993). New in technology of preparation and feeding of forages an animal;In: Proceeding of the Collection of scientific works, Almaata. 56–60. (in Russian).

[11] G.M. Kukta. (1978). Technology of processing and preparations of forages, KOLOS, Moscow. (in Russian).

[12] A.I. Zavrazhnov, D.I. Nikolaev, (1990) Mechanization of preparation and storage of forages, Agropromizdat, Moscow, (in Russian).

[13] Dhankani, K.C, Pearce, J.M, (2017). Open source laboratory sample rotator mixer and shaker. HardwareX. Vol.1, pp 1–12

[14] Clark, P. M., Behnke, K.C, and Poole. D.R, (2007). Effects of marker selection and mix time on the coefficient of variation (mix uniformity) of broiler feed. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. Vol.16, pp 464–470.

[15] Stark, C., McKinney, L., Fahrenholz, A.C., (2014). Use approved ingredient specs, suppliers. Feedstuffs. Vol.86, No.14, pp 16.

[16] Stark, C., Pacheco, W., Fahrenholz, A.C., (2017). The daily grind of the hammer mill. Feedstuffs Vol. 89, No. 5, pp 34.

[17] Fahrenholz, A.C, (2019). Best practices: Mixing and sampling, Animal Feed Science and Technology Vol. 250, pp 51–52

[18] Reese, D.A, Foltz, K.L, and Moritz, J.S, (2017). Effect of mixing and sampling method on pelleted feed nutrient analysis and diet formulation validation (2017).Journal of Applied Poultry Research. Vol. 26, pp 219–225

[19]. McCoy, R. A., Behnke, K. C., Hancock, J. D, and McEllhiney R.R. (1994). Effect of mixing uniformity on broiler chick performance. Poultry Science. Vol.73, pp 443–451. O.O. Ajibola et al./ NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 2(3) 2020 pp. 21-35 34

[20] Weinekötter,R. and Gericke, H, (2000). Mixing of Solids, Particle Technology Series, Brian Scarlett (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

[21] Alhwaige, A.A, Tasirin S.M, and Daud, W.R.W. (2007). Experimental Study on the Mixing of Binary Polymer Particles in Different Types of Mixer. Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 7 No.15, pp 2200-2205

[22] Abraham Tamir, KfirLuzzatto, (1985). Solid‐solid and gas‐gas mixing properties of a new two‐impinging‐streams mixer American Institute of Chemical Engineers.Journal. Vol. 31, Iss. 5, pp 781-787.

[23] Bauman I. (2001). Solid-solid mixing with static mixers. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly. Vol.15 No.4, pp159–165.

[24] Kirchner, A., Feil, A., Colovic R, Vukmirovic D, Levic J. (2013). Discontinuous addition of small volumes of liquids in an intensive mixer to animal supplement feed with different particle size distributions Powder Technology. Vol. 239, pp358–365

[25] Van den Dries K, Vromans H, (2003). Experimental and modelistic approach to explain granulate inhomogeneity through preferential growth, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol.20, pp 409–417.

[26] Walter, M, (1990). The inclusion of liquids in compound feeds, Advances in Feed Technology (Vol. 1990), pp 36– 48.

[27] Millet S, Langendries K, Aluwé M, De Brabander D.L, (2011). Effect of amino acid level in the pig diet during growing and early finishing on growth response during the late finishing phase of lean meat type gilts, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.Vol.91, pp 1254–1258.

[28] Moritz J.S, Beyer R.S,Wilson K.J, Cramer K. R., Mckinney L.J and Fairchild F.J. (2001). Effect of moisture addition at the mixer to a corn-soybean-based diet on broiler performance. Journal of Applied Poultry Research.Vol.10, pp 347–353

[29] Lundblad K.K, Hancock J.D, Behnke K.C, Prestløkken E, McKinney L.J, Sørensen M, (2009). The effect of adding water into the mixer on pelleting efficiency and pellet quality in diets for finishing pigs without and with use of an expander. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol.150, pp 295–302

[30], Accessed on 30-04-2020 [31] Accessed on 30-04-2020

[32] Accessed on 30-04-2020

[33] Accessed on 30-04-2020

[34] Accessed on 30-04-2020

[35] Accessed on 21-10-2019 [36] Osarenmwinda J.O and Iguodala K.O (2014); Design and fabrication of a foundry sand mixer using locally avaliable materials. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH) Vol. 33 No. 4, pp.604-609

[37] Accessed on 30-04-2020

[38] Accessed on 21-10-2019 [39]…/mixers-and-smc Accessed on 21-10-2019 [40] He S.Y, Gan J.Q, Pinson D. Zhou Z.Y, (2019). Particle shape-induced radial segregation of binary mixtures in a rotating drum, Powder Technol. 341, pp 157–166. [41] Brück F, Kevin S, Tim M, Harald W, (2018). Accelerated carbonation of waste incinerator bottom ash in a rotating drum batch reactor, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. Vol.6, pp 5259–5268.

[42] Wu W.Y and Saxena S.C, (1997). Mixing characteristics of light paper pellets in a sand fluidized bed, Energy Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 615-619, 1997

[43] Alrazen H.A, Talib A.A, Ahmad K. (2016). A two-component CFD studies of the effects of H2, CNG, and diesel blend on combustion characteristics and emissions of a diesel engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Vol.41 No.24, pp 10483–10495.

[44] Alrazen H.A, Talib A.R,A, Adnan R., Ahmad K.A.(2016), A review of the effect of hydrogen addition on the performance and emissions of the compression–ignition engine. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol.54, pp 785–796.

[45] Zhang C.H, Song J.T. (2015). Experimental study of co-combustion ratio on fuel consumption and emissions of NG–diesel dual-fuel heavy-duty engine equipped with acommon rail injection system. Journal of Energy Institute. Vol.89 No.4, pp 578–585.

[46] Mahmood H.A, Adam N.M, Sahari B.B, Masuri S.U, (2018). Development of a particle swarm optimisation model for estimating the homogeneity of a mixture inside a newly designed CNG-H2-Air mixer for a dual fuel engine: An experimental and theoretic study. Fuel.Vol.217, pp 131–150

[47] Li Y, Zhang X, Zhang P, Liu X, Han L., (2020). Facile fabrication of magnetic bio-derived chars by co-mixing with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for effective Pb2þ adsorption: Properties and mechanism. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol.262, pp 121350

[48] Smith C.O, (1970). Introduction to Reliability in Design, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., In ASM Vol 20

[49] Gall, V., Runde M., and Schuchmann H.P. (2016). Extending Applications of High-Pressure Homogenization by Using Simultaneous Emulsification and Mixing (SEM)—An Overview. Processes, 4, 46. pp 1-15.

[50] Module 8-Lesson 1, Design of Shaft: Shaft and its design based on strength. Version 2 ME , IIT Kharagpur O.O. Ajibola et al./ NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 2(3) 2020 pp. 21-35 35 [51] Ajibola O.O, Akinribide O.J, Akiwamide S.O, Olubambi P.A, Adebayo A.O, (2018)Characterisation and wear behaviours of oil-quenched rolled carbon steels in DOT4 brake fluid. Proceedings of the 1st FUOYE International Engineering Conference ,Ikole Nigeria Vol. 1, pp399-409

[52] Adebayo A. O. and Ajibola O. O (2017). Influence of independent variables on the mechanical properties of rolled carbon steel. FUW Trend in Science and Technology Journal (FTSTJ) Vol 2 No 1A, pp 1-6

[53] Hall, A.S; Holowenko, A. R. and Laughin, A. O. (1987). Machine design: Theory and problem. Schaum outline series. S.I (Metric) Edition. McGraw Hill book company, New York, USA. [54] Dairo O.U. Olayanju T.M, Adeoye A.A., Adeleke A.E., Adeosun O.J. and Iyerimah R.B. (2017). Development of an anaerobic digester for animal waste, FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology. Vol 2, Iss 2, pp 17-22

[55] Erik, O.; Franklin, D. J.; Brook, I. H. and Henry, H. R. (2004). Machinery handbook. Industrial press inc., New York, USA. [56] Erameh Andrew A, Adingwupu Anthony C, (2019) Design and development of a hand operated grinding machine. Advances in Engineering Design Technology. Vol. 1 No.1, pp. 49-64

[57] Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K. (2005). Machine Design. Eurasia publishing house (PVT) Ltd. Nagar, New Delhi.

[58] Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, R. H. Hines, and K. C. Behnke. (1995). Reducing particle size of corn in lactation diets from 1,200 to 400 micrometers improves sows and litter performance. Journal of Animal Science. Vol.73, pp421-429

[59] Adetunji O. R. and Quadri A. H. (2011), Design and fabrication of an improved cassava grater. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 12 No.2, pp120-129

[60] Hall, S. A, Holowenko, A. S and Laughin, H. G. (1988). Theory and problems of machine design. Shaum’s Outline Series”, Mc Graw-Hill, New York.

[61] Spolt, M. F.(1988). “Design of machines element”, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, New Delhi.

[62] Isife J.K., Ukwani C., Sani G. (2019). Design and simulation of an automated poultry feed mixing machine using process controller. Global Scientific Journal. Vol., 7, No. 1, pp537-602

[63] Adebukola, A. A., and Patrick O. A.. (2019). Development and evaluation of a fish feed mixer. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 21 (3) pp 226–233. [64] Sommer K., (1992). Mixing of solids, In Ulmann’s Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. B4, Chap. 27, VCH Publishers Inc.