Isiaka Kareem, Mohd Razi Ismail, Adam Puteh, Mahamoud Abdillahi Rabileh, Saliu
Adeyemi Kareem, Alasinrin Sikiru Yusuf


This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of priming treatments on growth and yield of rice under different irrigation regimes. In this work, six priming treatments(48-hour priming with 100 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 24-hour priming with 100 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 48-hour priming with 40% (w/v) polyethyl glycol(PEG) 6000, 24-hour priming with 40% (w/v) polyethyl glycol (PEG) 6000, 24-hour priming with 100 ppm kinetin and 48-hour priming with 100 ppm kinetin) were tested under two irrigation regimes (normal and water stress conditions). The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of the irrigation regimes while the sub-plot comprised the priming treatments. Plants were assessed using number of tillers, number of productive tillers, rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide, transpiration rate, shoot fresh mass, shoot dry mass, 100-grain mass, grain yield, harvest index, grain length, grain width and grain size. The results showed that 48-hour priming with 100 mM calcium chloride dihydrate was 33.74% better than 24-hour priming with 100 mM calcium chloride dihydrate, 48-hour priming with 40% (w/v) polyethyl glycol PEG) 6000 was 26.86% better than 24-hour priming with 40% (w/v) polyethyl glycol PEG) 6000and 24-hour priming with 100 ppm kinetin was 23.69% better than 48-hour priming with 100 ppm kinetin in yield production in both irrigation regimes. Therefore, it is recommended that, subject to further research, rice seed priming with 100mM calcium chloride and 40% (w/v) PEG6000 should not exceed 48hours while priming with 100ppm kinetin should not exceed 24hours for effectiveness and avoidance of resource wastage. Read full PDF

Keywords: Priming duration, irrigation regime, water stress, priming agents, growth and yield performance


[1] Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Wahid, A. and Khan, M.B. (2006). Rice seed invigouration by hormonal and vitamin priming. Seed Science Technology. 34:775-780

[2] Giri, G.S. and Schilinger, W.F. (2003) Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence and yield. Crop Science. 43: 2135-2141.

[3] Harris, D., Tripathi, R. S. and Joshi, A. (2002). On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. Direct seeding: Research Strategies and Opportunities, International Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, 231-240.

[4] Mubshar, H., Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A.and Ahmad, N. (2006). Influence of seed priming techniques on the seedling establishment, yield and quality of hybrid Sunflower. Integrated Journal of Agricuture and Biology. 8(1): 14-18.

[5] Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R. (2005). Pre-sowing seed treatment-ashotgum approach to improve germination, plant growth and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy. 88:223-271.

[6] Zhao, T. J., Liu, Y., Yan, Y. B., Feng, F., Liu, W. Q. and Zhou, H. M. (2007). Identification of the amino acids crucial for the activities of drought responsive element binding factors (DREBs) of Brassica napus. FEBS Letters. 581 (16): 3044-3050.

[7] Jakab, G., Ton, J., Flors, V., Zimmerli, L., Métraux, J. P. and Mauch-Mani, B. (2005). Enhancing Arabidopsis salt and drought stress tolerance by chemical priming for its abscisic acid responses. Plant Physiology. 139 (1): 267-274.

[8] Xiong, L, Schumaker, K.S. and Zhu, J.K. (2002). Cell signaling during cold, drought, and salt stress. Plant Cell. 14: S165–S183.

[9] Shafi, M., Bakht, J., Hassan, M.J., Raziuddin, M. and Zhang, G. (2009). Effect of cadmium and salinity stresses on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 82:772–776.

[10]Carmo-Silva, A.E., Powers, S.J., Keys, A.J., Arrabaça, M.C. and Parry, M.A.J. (2008). Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions. Plant Cell and Environment. 31: 925-940.

[11]Gust, A. A., Brunner, F. and Nürnberger, T. (2010). Biotechnological concepts for improving plant innate immunity. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 21(2): 204-210. Isiaka Kareem et al. / NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 2(2) 2020 pp. 43-58 58

[12]Uchida, A., Jagendorf, A.T., Hibino, T. and Takabe, T.(2002). Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Science. 163:515–523.

[13]Ibrahim, M.H., Jaafar, H.Z., Karimi, E. and Ghasemzadeh, A. (2014). Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to and light intensity. The Scientific World Journal. 2014:1-14.

[14]Zubaer, M. A., Chowdhury, A. K. M. M. B., Islam, M. Z., Ahmed, T. and Hasan, M. A. (2007). Effects of water stress on growth and yield attributes of Aman rice genotypes. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production. 2 (6): 25-30.

[15]Chen, K.., and Arora, R. (2013). Priming memory invokes seed stress-tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 94: 33-45.

[16]Akram, M., Ajmal, S.U. and Munir M. (2007). Inheritance of traits related to seedling vigor and grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39(1): 37-45.

[17]Mahmood, T., Ashraf, M. and Shahbaz, M. (2009). Does exogenous application of glycinebetaine as a presowing seed treatment improve growth and regulate some key physiological attributes in wheat plants grown under water deficit conditions? Pakistan Journal Botany. 41(3): 1291-1302.

[18]Singh, K. and Kakralya, B.L. (2001). Seed physiological approach for evaluation of drought tolerance in groundnut stress and environmental plant physiology, In: K. K. Bora, K. Singh and A. Kumar, Eds., Pointer Publishers, Jaipur, Rajasthan, pp. 45-152.

[19]Abdoli, M., Saeidi, M., Jalali-honarmand, S., Mansourifar, S., Ghobadi, M. and Cheghamirza, K..(2013). Effect of source and sink limitation on yield and some agronomic characteristics in modern bread wheat cultivars under post anthesis water deficiency. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 101(2): 173 – 182

[20]Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. and Basra, S.M.A. (2009). Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 29: 185–212.

[21]Anwar, M. P., Juraimi, A. S., Puteh, A., Selamat, A., Rahman, M. M. and Samedani, B. (2012). Seed priming influences weed competitiveness and productivity of aerobic rice. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section BSoil & Plant Science. 62(6): 499-509.

[22]Kaur, S., Gupta, A.K. and Kaur, N. (2005). Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 191: 81-87

[23]Katoa, Y., Kamoshitab, A. and Yamagishia, J.(2008). Pre-flowering abortion reduces spikelet number in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) under water stress. Crop Science Society of America. 48 (6): 2389-2395.

[24]Ishimaru, T., Hirose, T., Matsuda, T., Goto, A., Takahashi, K., Sasaki, H., Terao, T., Ishii, R. and Yamagishi, T. (2005). Expression patterns of genes encoding carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and their relationship to grain filling in rice (Oryza sativa L.): comparison of caryopses located at different positions in a panicle. Plant and Cell Physiology. 46 (4): 620-628.

[25]Xu, Z.Z. and Zhou, G.S (2007). Photosynthetic recovery of a perennial grass Leymus chinesis after different periods of soil drought. Plant Production Science. 10(3): 277-285.

[26]Farooq M., Siddique, K.H.M., Rehman, H., Aziz, T., Lee, D.J. and Wahid, A. (2011). Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage Research. 111:87–98.

[27]Venuprasad, R., Lafitte, H.R. and Atlin G.N. (2007). Response to direct selection for grain yield under drought stress in rice. Crop Science. 47, 285–293.

[28]Van Heerden, P.D.R. and Laurie, R. (2008). Effects of prolonged restriction in water supply on photosynthesis, shoot development and storage root yield in sweet potato. Physiologia Plantarum. 134(1): 99-109.

[29]Yang, J., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Liu, K. and Wang, P. (2006). Post-anthesis development of inferior and superior spikelets in rice in relation to abscisic acid and ethylene. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57 (1): 149-160.

[30]Yang, J. and Zhang, J. (2006). Grain filling of cereals under soil drying. New Phytologist. 169 (2): 223-236.

[31]Mostajeran, A. and Rahimi-Eichi, V. (2009). Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars and accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in sheath and blades of their different aged leaves). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 5 (2): 264-272.