Okere, Chinenye E.


The need for alternative building materials to reduce cost and other environmental issues necessitated this work with locally available laterite, saw dust ash (SDA) and rice husk ash (RHA) obtained from agricultural and plant wastes. A total of 216 hollow blocks of size 450mm x 225mm × 150mm were produced using a mix ratio of 1:6 with water cement ratio of 1.0. SDA and RHA were used separately and in equal proportions to partially replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) using percentage replacement levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The blocks were cured for 7, 14, 28 and 60 days and the compressive strength obtained at these ages. The results gave an optimum percentage replacement at 10% with equal proportions of SDA and RHA with compressive strength values of 2.29N/mm2 , 2.34N/mm2 , 2.39N/mm2 , 3.09N/mm2 at curing ages of 7, 14, 28 and 60 days respectively. When considered separately, SDA with OPC gave a higher strength value of 2.31N/mm2 at a curing age of 28 days than RHA with OPC which gave a strength of 1.93N/mm2 . The variation of the strength with age is linear, showing that the strength increases with curing age. The compressive strength values at these specified points are greater than the recommended value by Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI) and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS). Read full PDF

Keywords: Compressive strength, laterite blocks, saw dust ash, rice husk ash, partial replacement, pozzolanic materials


[1] I.O. Agbede and J. Manasseh, (2008). Use of cement-sand admixture in lateritic brick production for low cost housing. Leornado Electronic Journal of Practices and Technology, Vol. 12, 163-174.

[2] L. Boeck, K.P.R. Chaudhuri, H.R. Aggarwal, (2000). Sandcrete blocks for buildings: A detailed study on mix compositions, strengths and their costs. The Nigerian Engineer, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp 24-33.

[3] J.I. Aguwa, (2010). Performance of laterite-cement blocks as walling units in relation to sandcrete blocks. Leornado Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Vol. 9, No. 16, 189-200.

[4] E.A. Adam, (2001). Compressed stabilised earth blocks manufactured in Sudan, A publication for UNESCO . Available from:,

[5] O.S. Komolafe, (1986). A study of the alternative use of laterite-sand-cement”, Conference on Materials Testing and Control, University of Science and Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Feb. 27-28, 1986.

[6] C. E. Okere, (2017), Suitability and Advantages of Using Laterite as a Soilcrete Block Material. IJournals: International Journal of Architectural Science & Civil Engineering, Vol. 1 Issue 1, 1-8.

[7] V. N. Dwivedia, N. P. Singh, S. S. Das, & N. B. Singh, (2006). A new pozzolanic material for cement industry: Bamboo leaf ash. International Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 3, 106-111.

[8] W. Alaloul, V. Olivio, M. Musarat, M. Liew, N. Zawawi, (2019). Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Interlocking Bricks utilizing wasted Polyethylene terephthalate. International Journal of Engineering (IJE).

[9] G. Pachideh, M. Gholhaki, A. Moshatgh, (2019). Investigating the Effect of Underlying Fabric on the Bagging Behaviour of Denim Fabrics. International Journal of Engineering (IJE), IJE Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 32, No. 9, 1277-1283

. [10]A. Manimaran, S. Seenu, P. T. Ravichandran, (2019). Stimulation Behaviour Study on Clay Treated with Ground Granulated Blast Slag and Groundnutshell Ash. International Journal of Engineering (IJE), IJE Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 32, No. 5, 673-678.

[11]A.P. Adewuyi, & B. F. Ola, (2005). Application of waterworks sludge as partial replacement for cement in concrete production. Science Focus Journal, Vol. 10, No.1, 123-130.

[12]A. U. Elinwa, & A. Awari, (2001). Groundnut husk ash concrete. Nigerian Journal of Engineering Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, 8 – 15.

[13]G. R. De Sensale, (2006). Strength development of concrete with rice-husk ash. Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 28, 158–160.

[14]V. Saraswathy, & H. Song, (2007). Corrosion performance of rice husk ash blended concrete. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 8, 1779–1784.

[15]I. O. Agbede, & S. O. Obam, (2008). Compressive Strength of Rice Husk Ash-Cement Sandcrete Blocks. Global Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 7, No.1, 43-46.

[16]L.O. Ettu, O. M, Ibearugbulem K. O. Njoku, L, Anyaogu and S. I. Agbo, (2013). Strength of Ternary Blended Cement Sandcrete Containing Afikpo Rice Husk Ash and Saw Dust Ash. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). Vol. 2, No.4, 133-137.

[17]British Standard Institution, BS 882, (1992). Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete.

[18]British Standards Institution, BS 12, (1978). Specification for Portland cement. C.E. Okere / NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research 2(2) 2020 pp. 152-157 157

[19]British Standards Institution, BS EN 1008, (2002). Mixing water for concrete – Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete.

[20]A.O. Madedor, (1992). The impact of building materials research on low cost housing development in Nigeria. Engineering focus, Publication of the Nigerian Society of Engineers, Vol. 4, No 2, 37-41.

[21]NIS 87, (2004). Standard for sandcrete blocks. Nigerian Indusrial Standard approved by Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON).